Summertime Safety

Sun Safety: Got You Covered! (Part 3)

Peter Koch 2014 Posted by Peter Koch

True or False:  Water reflects more UV than snow.

The answer is False.  Snow is a better reflector of light in all wavelengths (visible and UV) than water.  Fresh snow can reflect as much as 80-90%, while water reflects less than 25% on average. - Albedo

Many times we will find ourselves outside in an environment where the area around us conspires to increase our risk of skin damage.  The last Sun Safety blog, Fan of the Tan, reviewed risk factors that put you at greater risk for sun damage.  This installment will cover what you can do to protect yourself. 

While you can’t change who you are and many times you can’t change where you live, you have control over what you do.   What can you do to protect yourself?  Initially, limit the number and duration of high risk activities such as sunbathing or using tanning booths.  Also, limit exposure.  Try to schedule activities or work before 10am and after 2pm when the sun’s rays are least intense.  If you are working during that time, take breaks in the shade or bring shade with you on the job.

Factoid:  If you're unsure about the sun's intensity, take the shadow test: If your shadow is shorter than you, the sun's rays are the day's strongest. – OSHA Protecting Yourself in the Sun

When you are outside, the American Cancer Society advises to Slip! Slop! Slap! and Wrap!

  • Slip on a shirt:  Cover up with protective clothing to guard as much skin as possible when you're out in the sun.
    • A thin white t-shirt has a SPF of about 4.  Darker colors absorb more UV.
    • Choose comfortable clothes made of tightly woven fabrics that you can't see through when held up to a light.
    • Test your fabric: Place your hand between a single layer of the clothing and a light source.  If you can see your hand through the fabric, the garment offers little protection.


  •  Slop on sunscreen:  Use sunscreen and lip balm with UVA & UVB protection and a SPF of 30 or higher.
    • SPF 15 blocks 93% of UV and SPF 30 blocks 97% - SPF doesn't determine the length of protection, just the amount of UV that is blocked.
    • Two types of Sunscreen
      • Chemical UV Absorbers
        • Chemicals that work like a sponge on your skin to absorb UV for a set amount of time
        • Needs time to bond with skin; does not work right away
        • Harder to rub off
      • Physical Reflectors
        • Tiny metals that work like aluminum foil to reflect UV away from your skin
        • Doesn't need time to bond with skin; works right away
        • Easier to rub off
    • Apply a generous amount of sunscreen to unprotected skin at least 30 minutes before outdoor activities.
    • Reapply every 2 hours and after swimming, toweling dry, or sweating.


  • Slap on a hat:  Cover your head with a wide-brimmed hat, shading your face, ears, and neck.
    • If you choose a baseball cap, remember to protect your ears and neck with sunscreen.


  • Wrap on sunglasses:  Wear sunglasses with 100% UVA and UVB absorption to protect your eyes.
    • UV can cause cataracts, macular degeneration, blindness and melanoma of the eye.
    • Wear large sunglasses that block 99-100% of UV rays.
    • Lenses don't have to be dark or expensive - Look for lenses labeled UV 400 or ANSI Z80.3.

There are exposures, both at and outside of work, so regardless of the exposure; take steps to understand your skin cancer risk factors, reducew your risk, and Slip! Slop! Slap! and Wrap!

Want to know more about Sun Safety, register for MEMIC's Sun Safety webinar here.


Sun Safety: Fan of the Tan? (Part 2)

Peter Koch 2014 Posted by Peter Koch

When did tans become fashionable?

Centuries ago, tans were looked down upon by the upper classes, and fair, pale skin was considered the most beautiful. Tans were the mark of the working class laborer, while the wealthy stayed indoors, keeping their skin covered and protected.   In the 1920s, style-maker Coco Chanel returned from a vacation to the French Riviera with a deep tan, and suddenly, tans were in vogue.  – Tale of Tanning

Recall from the last Sun Safety blog – Just the Facts, that a tan, rather than being an indication of health, is actually a response to injury, because skin cells signal that they have been hurt by UV rays by producing more pigment.  Not everyone reacts to UV radiation equally.  Some of us are at greater risk.

Your personal risk factor for being harmed by UV overexposure is determined by who you are, what you do, and where you live.


Who you are:

There are certain risk factors that you naturally carry, and while you cannot change them, knowing that you bring them to the tanning table can help you make better decisions about exposure.  General risk factors include:

  • Skin type
  • Eye and hair color
  • Family or personal history of skin cancer

There are 6 types of skin based on how likely it is to tan or burn. - Sun Safety Alliance

  1. Always burns, never tans, sensitive to UV exposure.
  2. Burns easily, tans minimally.
  3. Burns moderately, tans gradually to light brown.
  4. Burns minimally, always tans well to brown.
  5. Rarely burns, tans profusely to dark.
  6. Never burns, deeply pigmented, least sensitive.

Although everyone's skin can be damaged by UV exposure, people with skin types I and II are at the highest risk.

We can be genetically predisposed toward skin damage.  People with red or blond hair, or blue or green eyes have been statistically shown to be a greater risk of skin damage from UV radiation.  They tend to burn more easily and tan less, producing less protective pigment (melanin). - CDC

Family history can be a predictor of skin damage.  If there is a history of skin cancer in your family (parents or grandparents), you may have a greater risk of developing skin cancer than someone who does not have that history.  Unfortunately, this doesn’t work in reverse.  Just because you don’t have a family history doesn’t mean you aren’t vulnerable.  Everyone is at risk, some more so than others.

Where you live:

Where you live, work, or play can play a part in your UV exposure.  People that live at higher altitudes are exposed to greater levels of UV radiation, because there is less air mass to absorb it.  On average your UV exposure will increase 5% for every 1000 ft above sea level you are.  Also, there are some latitudes that have more sunny days than others. 

What you do:

What you do can also put you at greater risk for skin damage.  This, of all of the previous risk factors, is the area we have most control over.  Consider some of these lifestyle questions:  Do you live an outdoor oriented lifestyle or work outside most of the year?  Do you sunbathe or go to a tanning booth regularly?  Are you typically outside without sun protection?  Some subtle changes here can have significant reductions in your overall exposure to UV.

There are exposures both at and outside of work, so regardless of the exposure; take steps to understand your skin cancer risk factors, reduce your risk, and Don’t Be a Fan of the Tan!

Want to know more about Sun Safety, register for MEMIC’s Sun Safety webinar here.

Sun Safety: Just the Facts (Part 1)

    Peter Koch 2014 Posted by Peter Koch

Fact or Fiction - How would you answer these questions?

  1. A sun tan totally protects me from sun burn.
  2. Only UVB rays cause skin cancer.
  3. Tanning beds are better for you than the sun because they emit more UVA than UVB rays.
  4. SPF 30 provides twice the protection as a product with SPF 15.
  5. Clouds protect me from the sun’s rays.
  6. Only parts of your body that are exposed to the sun can develop skin cancer.
  7. A sun tan indicates healthy skin.
  8. Light colored clothing is better protection from the sun because it reflects more of the sun’s rays.
  9. The darker the lens the more UV the sunglasses block out.
  10. I am only at risk of skin cancer if there is a history of it in my family.

If you answered True to any of the above questions, it’s time to expand your knowledge about Sun Safety.  Part 1 of this Sun Safety blog will review facts about the harmful radiation from the sun and the damage it can cause to us.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main cause of skin damage in the world.  Though it can have many sources, the majority of the UV radiation we are exposed to come from the sun.  Ultraviolet radiation can be broken up into different wave lengths – UVA, UVB, and UVC.  Solar UV radiation that reaches earth is 95% UVA and 5% UVB.  In terms of skin damage, UVA causes tanning, skin aging, and skin cancer.  UVB causes burning and skin cancer.

The World Health Organization considers UV radiation (whether solar or artificially generated) to be a carcinogen.  Report on Carcinogens.  UV radiation can be attributed to 90% of all of the skin cancer. 

Factoid:  Tanning beds can emit up to 12 times more UVA than the sun. – Spending time in a tanning bed can put you at a greater risk for skin damage, including cancer, than an equivalent of amount of time spent in the sun.

A sun tan is your body’s attempt at protecting itself from UV radiation.  It’s not an indication of healthy skin, but of sun damage.  This damage can lead to pre-mature aging of the skin and even cancer.

According to the American Cancer Society, “skin cancer is the most common of all cancers. It accounts for nearly half of all cancers in the United States. More than 3.5 million cases of basal and squamous cell skin cancer are diagnosed in this country each year. Melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer, will account for more than 76,000 cases of skin cancer in 2014.”, Skin Cancer Facts

Most basal and squamous cell cancers develop on sun-exposed areas of the skin, like the face, ear, neck, lips, and the backs of the hands.   They rarely spread to other parts of the body and can be cured if found and treated early.  Skin Cancer: Basal and Squamous Cell.

The more dangerous type of skin cancer, melanoma, accounts for only a small percentage of skin cancer but is far more aggressive and causes most of the skin cancer related deaths.  However, like the basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma is almost always curable when it’s found in its very early stages.  Unlike the others, melanoma can start in those areas of your body least exposed to UV radiation. Melanoma Skin Cancer 

Factoid:  Bob Marley, the reggae legend, died from melanoma that was discovered on his foot, but not before it had spread to other parts of his body and become incurable.

There are exposures both at and outside of work, so regardless of the exposure; take steps to understand your skin cancer risk factors and reduce your risk.  Prevention starts with you:  Examine often, identify early, treat immediately.

Click here to read part 2 of Sun Safety: Fan of the Tan?

Want to know more about Sun Safety, MEMIC policyholders can watch the Sun Safety webinar on our Safety Director


Bug Sprays Are Not All The Same

Tony Jones 2014 Posted by Tony Jones

As we enter the summer season it’s time to consider how to best protect outdoor workers.  One of the most important defenses in our arsenal against insects and vector diseases is insect repellants.  Many people have questions regarding the differences between the two most common insect repellants recommended by most resources. These two chemicals are Permethrin and DEET.  This additional information will help clarify any questions.

One of the most important differences between DEET and Permethrin is the method of application. For example, Permethrin is applied directly to clothing, while DEET can be applied to the skin and clothing.  It is important to remember that DEET is an insect repellant, while Permethrin is an actual insecticide. They work differently and so must be applied differently.

DEET: (chemical name N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is used as the active ingredient in many insect repellents. Insect repellents that contain DEET offer some of the best protection against mosquito bites, but must be frequently applied.

DEET is designed for direct application to skin and repels insects rather than killing them. Higher concentrations of DEET may have a longer repellent effect; however, concentrations over 50% provide no real added protection.

When using DEET containing products, follow these recommendations:

  • To apply to face, first spray product onto hands, then rub onto face.
  • Use only when outdoors and wash skin with soap and water after coming indoors.
  • Use just enough repellent to cover exposed skin and/or clothing. Avoid over-application of the product.
  • Do not breathe in, swallow, or get into the eyes (DEET is toxic if swallowed.) Do not put DEET repellent on wounds or broken skin.

Permethrin:  an insecticide in the pyrethroid family. Pyrethroids are synthetic chemicals that act like natural extracts from the chrysanthemum flower. Permethrin isn't a repellant, but a powerful insecticide that kills insects on contact.

Permethrin is generally considered safe for human use and most mammals, with one exception. Cats lack an enzyme used to detoxify Permethrin, so it can be toxic to cats.

When using Permethrin, follow these recommendations:

  • Don't apply this product to skin.
  • Spray permethrin onto clothing, where it bonds tightly to most fabrics and lasts through multiple washings. It's non-staining and has no odor after it dries.
  • Do not breathe in, swallow, or get permethrin into the eyes.

DEET and Permethrin are important tools to help protect workers from bites, stings, and vector borne diseases. Your employees must understand the correct use of these two important chemicals. The number and types of diseases one can contract from ticks and mosquitoes, for example, are pretty grim. Yet, through judicious use of these chemicals and proper protective clothing such a long sleeved shirts and long pants one can greatly reduce risks of exposure to these biological hazards.

For additional information on insect repellent use check out this FAQ page from the Centers for Disease Control

Tool Safety: Hand Held Circular Saws

Peter Koch 2014 Posted by Peter Koch

A hand held circular saw is one of the most common and potentially dangerous tools on the jobsite.   Ease of use and versatility of this saw are factors that drive decisions which put the operator at risk of injury.  It’s called a “skill” saw for a reason and not every operator has the necessary skill to safely produce quality work, in a timely manner. 

As one of the necessary “tools of the trade” it is critical that the operator has the skill and ability to use the saw correctly, ensuring their safety and the quality of the work.  So, to help maintain balance between the demands of quality, productivity and injury prevention review the following before you pick up a saw:


  • Make sure that you have read all safety materials that come with your saw.
  • Inspect the saw for serviceable condition.
  • Always wear safety glasses.
  • Check the blade guard; ensure it is working freely.
  • Ensure that the blade is proper for the material being cut.
  • Check the saw for proper blade installation and rotation.
  • Set the depth of the blade (while the saw is unplugged) so that the lowest tooth does not extend excessively beneath the wood.
  • Keep all cords clear of cutting area.
  • Use two hands to operate saw.
  • Mechanically secure stock being cut. 
  • Keep eyes on the saw while in use.
  • Remove nails, screws, fasteners, and other metal before cutting stock.
  • Let the saw come to rest before removing from the stock being cut.


  • Operate an unsafe tool or one that does not meet the manufacturer’s serviceable condition standards. 
  • Place your hand under the shoe or guard of the saw. 
  • Remove guard or prop open.
  • Hold retracting lower guard in the open position while cutting.
  • Rotate the saw up to change or check alignment while the saw is running. 
  • Force the saw in the material while cutting.
  • Carry the saw with a finger on the trigger switch. 
  • Overreach. Keep proper footing and balance. 
  • Support the work piece on your knee.  
  • Rip stock without securing the stock from movement

This is not a complete list.  Be sure to take a MEMIC Minute, go over the safety tips above, and be safe when you operate a circular saw.  For additional guidance check out the training resources from the Power Tool Institute.

Circular Saw power tool cut

Making Road Construction Safe for Everyone

Road construction projects and the summer season seem to run on the same schedule, often to the distress of many of us trying to go about our daily lives. Indeed, billions of dollars and millions of man-hours will be spent on road work in 2013, the bulk of it scheduled for the warmest months of the year.

While traffic delays may be frustrating, drivers must stay alert to the hazards inherent to road construction. “All work zones are dangerous, especially if you’re not paying attention or taking proper precautions,” said Rod Stanley, a Director of Loss Control and Safety for workers’ compensation insurer MEMIC. “Whenever you have workers interrupting the flow of traffic, and who are very near moving vehicles, there’s risk,” he continued, indicating that there are hundreds of fatal crashes in work zones each year.

Road construction is filled with moving parts, between flaggers, surrounding vehicles, and onsite workers. While it’s not possible to control all of these parts around you, you can approach any work zone with confidence by following these guidelines.

  • Be on the lookout for flaggers. Most road construction projects that alter the flow of traffic will use flaggers to direct vehicles safely. Typically located at the shoulder of a work site, flaggers should be easy to spot in their reflective gear. With 20 flaggers killed by motorists each year, though, it’s clear that drivers must be more vigilant about keeping watch for these workers.
  • Put down your cell phone. Mountains of data illustrate the dangers of using a mobile device while driving. Texting while driving, for instance, makes the likelihood of crashing 23 times higher, according to the US Department of Transportation. Circumstances can change at a moment’s notice in a construction zone – don’t compromise your reaction time with cell phone use.
  • Watch your speed. A car driving at 30 miles per hour will likely require over 100 feet to come to a complete stop. Driving more slowly will give you additional time to navigate confusing traffic patterns and react to necessary emergency stops.
  • Maintain a safe distance from workers and other motorists. Transportation incidents account for 40 percent of occupational fatalities in the United States. 70 percent of those are characterized by a motorist hitting a pedestrian worker. By allowing for plenty of space between yourself and others, whether they’re on foot or in a vehicle, you can create a buffer zone for any stops or quick alterations you may have to make.
  • Be courteous. Yes, road construction can be maddening, but flaggers and onsite workers are simply doing their job. Rushing angrily through detours, though, will only increase the likelihood of an accident.

 Road construction is unpredictable. Dangerous situations can seem to pop up out of nowhere. By allowing yourself plenty of space to react and limiting distractions, you can ensure a safer interaction with everyone on the road.

A Primer on Working in the Heat

Summer often supplies the best weather to be outdoors. It’s also the busiest time of year for many outdoor industries, from construction to agriculture to hospitality. Though these workplaces are often very pleasant in nice weather, it’s important to recognize that sun and heat exposure can be hazardous without the proper precautions. 
According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), thousands of workers require treatment for heat exposure each year, with some incidences serious enough to cause death.

“Ideally, heat exposure should be limited during the peak midday hours of 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.,” said Randy Klatt, Safety Management Consultant from workers’ compensation insurance specialist MEMIC. “For many workers, though, outdoor tasks are unavoidable in that stretch of time. By taking some simple precautions and staying mindful of your body’s reactions to the temperature, many heat-related sicknesses, like heat stroke, dehydration, and sunburn, can be avoided.”

Keep yourself safe with these five tips to avoid heat stress on the job.

  1. Plan your day accordingly.  Though limiting direct sun is almost always preferable, there are ways to plan your day effectively when exposure is necessary. Schedule more strenuous work in the morning and late afternoon when it’s cooler. If possible, secure a shady spot nearby your work zone to take breaks. Klatt suggests at least a few minutes out of the sun each hour.
  2. Wear the right gear. If such equipment is safe in your workplace environment, try to wear hot-weather friendly clothing. Light colored, breathable fabrics and hats that shade your face and neck will help to keep you comfortable under the sun’s rays. Eye damage is a concern, too – make sure your pair of sunglasses filters at least 90 percent of ultraviolet (UV) rays.
  3. Apply sunscreen early and often. The benefits of regular sunscreen use are well-documented, but studies continue to show that adults often don’t wear enough, if they wear it at all. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen (protecting against UV-A and UV-B rays) with an SPF of at least 15. Apply liberally 30 minutes before going outside, and every two hours thereafter.
  4. Stay hydrated. The more we sweat, the more important it is to replace the fluids our body has lost. Water is perfectly acceptable for short periods outside, but for longer stretches, you may want to consider replenishing your electrolytes with a sports drink. The Center for Disease Control recommends approximately one cup of water every 15 to 20 minutes. Alcohol (of course), caffeine, and sugary drinks are not recommended, as they tend to dehydrate your body.
  5. Assess how you’re feeling on a regular basis. Take the time to rest in the shade for a few minutes every hour and monitor yourself for signs of overexposure and dehydration. If you’re feeling dizzy, nauseated, or extremely fatigued, it’s likely a sign that your body needs a break from heat exposure. Muscle pain or spasms may indicate dehydration or low salt levels.  Don’t ignore these warning signals. Overextending yourself can be a serious health risk.

In the event of heat-related sickness, sit or lie down in a cool spot as soon as possible. Drink plenty of fluids and loosen or remove any heavy or tight clothing you may have on. The amount of time your body takes to rehydrate varies depending on the severity of your heat exposure, but you may require anywhere from 30 minutes to several hours. Be careful not to rush yourself. In the event of acute heat sickness like heat stroke – often identified with dizziness, slurred speech, and very hot, dry skin, among other symptoms – call 911 or seek emergency medical treatment immediately. These episodes can lead to death.

Working in the summer heat can become a little more bearable with the proper precautions. By remaining responsive to your environment, outfitting yourself with proper equipment, and taking breaks when your body requires them, you can create the groundwork for a productive and safe day in the sun.

Nail Gun Safety

Posted by Bruce Small

The majority of workers involved with wood construction use one of the many air powered nailers available on the market.  Since their introduction in the 1950’s, “nail guns” have improved the speed and productivity of anyone who drives nails for a living. They have also exposed carpenters and builders to risks that the old hammer and nail never did. 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports an estimated 37,000 emergency room visits per year due to nail gun injuries; 68% are occupational-related, while the remaining 32% involve consumers.  Most injuries involve puncture wounds to fingers, hands, and feet.  However, many well documented cases have resulted in eye injuries, damage to internal organs, and puncture wounds to the brain.

Every nail gun purchased comes with an owner’s manual from the manufacturer.  There is also a safety warning sticker prominently displayed on the tool; both of these list safe – and unsafe – work procedures.

Some of these safety tips include the following:

  • Read the owner’s manual and use it for training.
  • Wear safety glasses and be sure anyone in the work area is wearing them as well.
  • Use appropriate personal protective equipment as needed.
  • Keep the tool pointed away from yourself and others.
  • Keep hands, feet and other body parts away from the muzzle of the tool.
  • Disconnect the air hose when clearing jams, doing maintenance or when handing the tool to another worker.
  • Keep your finger off the trigger except when nailing. A sequential trigger (requiring the gun nose to be depressed before the trigger will fire a nail) is safer than a contact trigger.
  • Hold the tool firmly onto the work surface to avoid a recoil kick-back and double firing.
  • Avoid nailing into knots or other fasteners.

As a reminder, pneumatic tools and compressors are regulated under OSHA’s Construction standard at 29 CFR 1926.302(b).

Further information can be found here:  OSHA Nail Gun Safety Publication and Nail Gun Safety: The Facts.

Nail gun injuries are painful, can cause serious injury or death, and can be prevented.

Transportation Leads the Way

Klatt Randy Posted by Randy Klatt

In 2010, 4690 U.S. workers died while on the job.  Although this represents a 3% increase from 2009, both years continue an overall downward trend in workplace deaths.  For example, in 1994 there were 6632 workers killed.  This trend is good news for all of us, yet over 13 people still die each day at work.   

Take a look at the pie chart below to see the manner in which fatal work injuries occurred.  With this knowledge you may be able to address specific issues at your workplace in order to mitigate the hazards.  It’s pretty easy to see what is killing most people:  40% of fatalities were transportation incidents.      
Transportation Graph
Source:  U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2012

Ask yourself if your employees drive either company cars, vans, trucks, heavy machinery, or their own personal vehicles during the course of their jobs.  If the answer is “yes” then a fleet plan should be developed to ensure the safe operation and condition of all vehicles.  There are many elements to a comprehensive fleet plan and each organization’s would differ slightly.  However, they should all include policies regarding driver’s license checks, vehicle inspections, maintenance programs, traffic law responsibilities, and driver safety training and education. 

Check out the Safety Director Resource Library at for fleet plan tools and resources.  Get started today and ensure all employees Arrive Alive each and every day.       


What Makes Safety Glasses Safe?

John DeRoia Posted by John DeRoia

Employees are often required to wear safety eyewear in the course of their duties.  In the past safety glasses were uncomfortable and bulky.  Newer safety glasses are more comfortable to wear and can even be quite stylish.   

OSHA requires workers to use appropriate PPE for any job which may pose a threat to a person’s health.  Eye or face protection shall be worn when workers could be exposed to flying debris, particles, or hazardous liquids.  Any lenses or frames stamped with “ANSI Z87” will meet or exceed OSHA standards.  The ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard sets forth requirements for the design, construction, testing, and use of eye protection devices, including standards for impact and penetration resistance. 

The standard designates that lenses will be divided into two protection levels, Basic Impact and High Impact as dictated by test criteria.  Basic Impact lenses must pass the “drop ball” test; a one inch diameter steel ball is dropped on the lens from 50 inches. High Impact lenses must pass “high velocity” testing.  Here 1/4" steel balls are “shot” at velocities from 150 ft/sec for spectacles to 300 ft/sec for face shields.  All eyewear frames, face shields, or crowns must comply with the High Impact requirement.

The impact protection level must be indicated on the device. Basic Impact spectacle lenses will have the manufacturer’s mark and the Z87.  High Impact spectacle lenses will also have a plus + sign following the Z87.  (Note: Lenses/windows may have additional markings. Shaded lenses may have markings denoting a shade number such as 3.0, 5.0 etc… Special purpose lenses may be marked with “S”. A variable tint lens may have a “V” marking.)

Side shield coverage, as part of the lens or as an individual component, has been increased rearward by 10-millimeters via a revised impact test procedure. While side protection in the form of wraparound lens, integral or attached component side shield devices is not mandated in this standard, it is highly recommended.  Further, OSHA does require lateral protection on eye protection devices when a flying particle hazard may exist, and flying particle hazards are virtually always present in any occupational environment. All current non-prescription safety spectacles meet the requirements of OSHA and Z87.1 for side protection.

As you can see (yes, pun intended) the testing process is rigorous and not all glasses are safety glasses. Employers must conduct a PPE assessment and then provide employees the appropriate protection, including eyewear.  For more information concerning a PPE assessment check out OSHA’s Training and Reference Materials Library.