General Safety

Safe Golf Cart Operations

HawkerPosted by Tonya Hawker

Golf carts have become quite a popular commodity these days, and not just for playing golf.  In fact, golf carts are used not only in country clubs, but also on automotive dealership lots, large manufacturing facilities, and even between buildings on large properties like schools, hospitals, hotels, and entertainment venues.  So yes, golf carts have become a fast, cheap, maintenance free way to get around a large foot-print.  However, driving a small, silent vehicle around a bustling facility can also present significant hazards.  A quick search of the OSHA website revealed over 120 incidents resulting in citations, injuries, and fatalities related to golf cart use.

 

Golf CArt

Here are a few hints to help reduce this exposure…

  • Controlled Access: Allow only specific employees to access or use the vehicle.  Controlling access can limit horseplay and unnecessary use.
  • Safety Rules: Require users to read and sign a copy of the company’s safety rules for the vehicle.
  • Identification: Assign a designated traffic route for use by the golf cart that doesn’t interfere with pedestrian or other vehicular traffic.  Consider highlighting the traffic patterns with marking paint to inform others of the traffic routine.
  • Enforcement: Administer strict disciplinary action for improper use or behavior by revoking privileges or terminating employment.  Safety compliance is critical!
  • Battery Charging: Charging should only be done in areas designed for that purpose. The area should be well ventilated and have spill response materials available to clean-up electrolyte spills.  Charging devices should be equipped with automatic shut-off devices.

Also consider clearly posting golf cart operating rules on all carts and don’t forget about training.  Golf Cart Operating Rules should be reviewed with designated drivers at hire and annual refresher training completed to reinforce the expected behaviors.  See sample rules below:

 

Golf Cart Safety Rules

  • Golf carts should be operated on clearly identified paths or perimeter roadways. Sidewalks should be used only where roadways &/or parking lots are not available, and then, only to the nearest adjacent street or parking lot.
  • Keys to unused golf carts should be controlled to prevent unauthorized use.
  • When operating the cart, always stay to the far right side of the lane to allow other vehicles to pass.
  • Always obey traffic rules and regulations.
  • Use extreme caution near building entrances. Park the vehicle away from doors, walkways, or covered areas.
  • Golf carts should be operated at a safe speed. The speed should be no faster than a well-paced walk.  Speed may also be subject to terrain, weather conditions, and total weight of the golf cart… So be cautious of your environment.
  • All occupants MUST keep hands, arms, legs, and feet inside the golf cart while it is moving.
  • No golf carts should be operated with more passengers than the seating provides. All passengers MUST be seated while cart is in motion.
  • Never back up without making sure there are no people or obstructions blocking the travel route.
  • Pedestrians always have the “right of way”.
  • Approach sharp or blind corners with caution and reduce speed.
  • NEVER operate golf cart on steep hills or severely sloped terrain. Stay on flat areas.
  • Never leave keys in a golf cart unattended.
  • When the golf cart is not in motion, the control lever should be placed in PARK (or neutral position) with the PARKING BRAKE SET. Then remove the key.

 

 

Additional information can be found at Golf Cart Safety.com, and from EHS Daily Advisor


 


Bunk Beds De-bunked!

KochPosted by Peter Koch

Housekeepers unite! It’s time we de-bunked. While bunk beds are common in many segments of the hospitality industry and serve to increase the occupancy of a room, they can be a real pain in a housekeeper’s day.  This becomes even more important as summer camps open and more bunk beds are in use.  Ask any housekeeper, “Which would you rather do, clean a bathroom or make up a bunk bed?”  Inevitably, they will choose bathroom duty. 

Bunk beds come in many shapes and sizes, but all have the same basic hazards:

These exposures increase the force it takes to do the same tasks as a regular bed, no matter the size.  Using proper technique as allowed by the bed configuration, lifting the edge of a twin mattress on a top bunk can put more strain on the shoulder and back than lifting the edge of a king mattress on a bed positioned at the housekeepers waist.  Pic 1 5 19

While there are no national statistics on bunk bed injuries among housekeeping staff, their design alone places limitations on the controls that can be implemented.  The best practice is transitioning to a “no bunk bed environment”.  However, this is usually beyond the scope of most housekeeping teams, so here are a few quick tips to tame bunk bed tasks:

  • Create space
    1. Move the bunk away from the wall so the team can work on both sides of the bed.
    2. No Bunk Monkeys - Assigning the smallest person to climb to the top bunk and do the work that can’t be reached from the open side is a widely used practice. However, this brings on its own set of exposures and is not recommended.

Pic 2 5 19

  • Work as a team
    1. Two housekeepers are recommended to tackle the bunk bed tasks. Working together they can share the load and reduce the forces required.
  • Remove the rails or work between them
    1. If the bunk has removable rails, take them down. This will allow the team to work without having to reach over it.
    2. If the rails can’t be removed, work between or under them when possible. This will also limit awkward postures.

Pic 3 5 19

  • Consider custom tools
    1. Using a pole or board placed under the mattress and between the rails can provide needed space and limit the length of time the mattress must be held manually.
  • Change positions to reduce sustained awkward postures
    1. Stand up to position the bedding.
    2. Kneel to spread, smooth and tuck.

Pic 4 5 19

 


Keep Lifts Between the Knees and Shoulders

BrownPosted by Allan Brown, PT 

How did this lifting range come into existence?  Some might say experience and logic got us here.  Actually, this guideline was developed through historical research done by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) using mechanical models and understanding the mechanism of injury. 

The NIOSH lifting equation is used to predict the risk of injury based on the weight being lifted.  The equation uses a load constant of 51 pounds.  This was the starting load that 99% of male and 75% of female workers could handle safely in perfect conditions.  However, perfect conditions don’t exist in our manufacturing and manual lifting worlds. 

The equation accounts for these imperfections (such as reaching and vertical distance) and chisels away at the 51 pounds as risks increase.  Once all considerations are accounted for the final recommended weight limit is calculated.  This is often something less than 51 pounds.  The healthcare industries as well as some manufacturers are starting to use 35 pounds as a standard. It’s a basic recommendation that doesn’t account for all risks when lifting. 

Why knee and shoulder height? 

At shoulder height the dynamics and forces around the shoulder change and become poorer and weaker.  According to a review of literature by Rhode and Rhode titled Occupational Risk Factors of Shoulder Tendon Disorders 2015, when lifting an object to above shoulder height the core and stabilizer muscles become less efficient so we change our body mechanics and the risk of shoulder injury increases dramatically. 

Pic - Blog

The graphic above illustrates safe lift zones and appropriate weights in those zones.  The green area is the best zone often referred to as the power zone.  The red zone is the no lift zone and is appropriately above shoulder and below knee height.  Additionally, the further a worker reaches from the body the lesser the weight safely handled (yellow zone). You can see why 35 pounds became the healthcare industry standard and a good recommendation for all lifting environments.

At the lower end of a lift, moving below the knee increases the risk and exposure to the back, especially for the lumbar region.  Research completed by Al Nachemson  illustrated the changes in disc pressure with different activities.    Lifting activities greatly increase the disc pressure.  Better body mechanics reduces the force and keeping the load off the floor in an upright position reduces the force further. 

Here’s a fact that will make you pause before you lift from the floor. Bending at the waist and reaching to the floor with no weight in the hands increases the pressure in the lumbar disc to approximately 1000 inch pounds. 

NIOSH recommends limiting lumbar disc pressure to no greater than 770 inch pounds.  Forces beyond 770 inch pounds begin to physically change the health of the disc.  Lifting properly can reduce the force, but proper technique is a skill rarely mastered or used by people in a dynamic work environment.  

Through these studies we know the safest lift range is between standing knee and shoulder height.  This is a basic guideline not taking into consideration reaches and twists away from the body as well as coupling (grip).  Work environments outside these ranges increase the risks of shoulder and back injuries. 

Here are a few simple considerations:

  • Keep lifts between knee and shoulder height.
  • Limit weight to 35 pounds and consider lift assist devices such as vacuum lifts for greater loads.
  • Avoid placing work on the floor. Double up pallets to raise load platform.
  • Consider dynamic pallet lifts to keep the load in the best position.
  • Anything lifted manually over 35 pounds should be a two person lift.

 

 

 


Hand in Glove (Suitably Protected)

LarochellePosted by Greg LaRochelle, WCP

Soon in northern climes with the arrival of spring and the greening of the outdoors, we’ll be outside digging in the dirt starting our vegetable and flower gardens, pruning shrubs, cleaning up yard debris, and mowing the lawn.  To accomplish this, hand and power tools made of steel with honed edges, pointed ends, and sharp teeth will be used.  We’ll be spreading lime and fertilizer for a lush green landscape and maybe even applying herbicides and insecticides to control unwanted guests, orchestrating all of this with the use of our dexterous hands.  So it stands to reason, we should protect our “paws” and nimble fingers against cuts, chemical exposure, and the chance of infection from bacteria-laden earth.    

The obvious safeguard is to don a pair of gloves; but the selection of the right glove for the job is less apparent when you consider all the hazards (at hand).  This is the same perplexing issue many employers are faced with when conducting a personal protective equipment (PPE) assessment specific for hand protection.  The appropriate glove for protection against sharp tools may be an all-purpose leather glove or one made of cut-resistant Kevlar but the answer is less clear for safeguarding against chemical use. 

Gloves intended for protection against chemicals are rated for their resistance to permeation and degradation.  Permeation is a process by which a chemical can pass through the molecules of the glove material and degradation is a reduction in the physical properties of the glove material when exposed to a chemical.  In sizing up the situation for selecting the right glove, the safety data sheet for the chemical product should be reviewed with regard to its chemical composition.  Typically, the major constituent in weight percent is evaluated for PPE use.  From this “ingredient” information, the proper glove can be determined by referencing a rating chart.  The glove manufacturer Ansell has an online chemical resistance guide for 163 chemicals from acetaldehyde to xylene/xylol.  For example, if a certain manufacturing process involves the use of the organic solvent acetone, the Ansell chart indicates a laminate film glove as well as neoprene and natural rubber to be appropriate glove selections while nitrile and polyvinyl chloride gloves are not recommended for use.    

So review this glove rating chart or contact your PPE supply vendor to ensure the “hand in glove” is suitably protected against the chemical products in use.  You’ll likely find this resource to be quite handy. 

Also, check out these previous springtime related MEMIC blog posts, Your Lawn Mower is More Dangerous Than You Think and Spring Clean Up: Chainsaw Awareness.  Have a safe and bountiful gardening season!

 

 

 

 


More than Love Handles

Beth-Stowell-lg2 Posted by Beth Stowell, BS, MPH, COHN‐S, CHSP

Emily Post’s book of etiquette indicates that a gentleman should put his hand under a women’s elbow as she steps off the curb to prevent any risk of falling. This courtesy may have started as early as the 1800’s with ladies’ large petticoats.  At the time, who would have thought about the potential damage this support could cause to the shoulder girdle?  In the 21st century this is a concern, particularly to caregivers in the healthcare industry.

The shoulder joint is a ball and socket held in place with ligaments.  Tendons then connect muscles to the skeletal structure.  As we age, this overused joint can be damaged by helpful loved ones and/or caregivers.  We may not only need help stepping off the curb, but rising out of a chair, moving onto a toilet, and getting into the car.

The shoulder girdle is not designed for the stress incurred when the arm is used as a “handle” to raise a person out of a seated posture.  This is hazardous to both the resident/patient and the caregiver.  MEMIC has long recognized the injury exposure “lifting” places on healthcare workers.  Preventing lifting injuries to both caregivers and patients starts with eliminating the act of “lifting”.

The traditional gait belt was used by physical therapists to help guide and assist patients when re-learning to ambulate. Over the years, caregivers have mutated its use into handles for assisting patients/residents to a standing posture.  In January 2016, MEMIC committed to provide our healthcare industry policyholders a different type of gait belt.  We call this product the Safe Assist Belt (SAB).  The SAB includes vertical handles on a wide padded belt with slip resistant material on the inside.  The padding makes it much more comfortable for the patient/resident, and the handles allow a more neutral wrist posture.  However, it is not just the vertical handles and padding that is significant.  The SAB is intended to replace the traditional gait belt, but also requires a new method to assist residents/patients. Now the mechanism to elevate a seated person is a push/pull using the legs and not a “lift” which required the use of the bicep and lower back. 

The new device requires training for all caregivers.  The training not only addresses the change in technique, but an explanation as to why this change will improve the safety of the caregiver and improve quality of care for patients/residents. Training the frontline caregivers is rewarding as they learn the technique and realize this new tool makes their job safer and easier. Changing the technique comes with challenges.  A new habit must be developed.  However, taking the lift out of the maneuver is imperative.  Below you can see the” right pull” and the “incorrect lift”. 

For further assistance with training, including a demonstration video, check out the resources in the MEMIC Safety Academy or contact your MEMIC Safety Management Consultant.

  

Pic 1The "right pull" technique.

 Pic2The "incorrect lift." 


Bloodborne Pathogens – When is a Program Required?

SylvesterPosted by Rob Sylvester, CEHT

A Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP) program is a given for healthcare organizations, but what about other industries? Requirements may apply to more than just bloodborne pathogens.  OSHA identifies a host of “other potentially infectious materials.” Taken directly from CFR1910.1030:

Other Potentially Infectious Materials means

(1) The following human body fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids; 

Many of you may be thinking, “My employees don’t come into contact with that stuff!Generally, if you work in a machine shop or a grocery store you would be correct, but there may be exceptions. For example, an employee, visitor, or customer cuts themselves. The injured person is unable to clean up their own blood as they were whisked off to the urgent care clinic. Who then is responsible for cleanup?  How about your designated first responders or those providing first aid? If so, they are covered by the standard. Injuries like these are fairly common, and the business disruption while the cleanup takes place can be significant. Safe and expeditious cleanup comes from personnel thoroughly trained in proper cleaning methods and personal protection. 

Housekeepers in the hospitality industry may also be covered by this standard. It’s likely that these workers will encounter human body fluids while cleaning hotel rooms, bathrooms, and other public spaces. OSHA’s letters of interpretation don’t dictate either way, but put the responsibility on the employer to make this determination. Providing awareness training is prudent in this case. You can find additional letters of interpretation here

In closing, ask yourself this simple question: “Is there a reasonable expectation that employees will come into contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials?” If the answer is “no” then a program is likely not required. If the answer is “yes”, or even “maybe” then a program compliant with CFR 1910.1030 is required.

MEMIC customers have access to program templates and training located in the Safety Director along with additional training in the Safety Academy. Additional information is available from your MEMIC Safety Management consultant, your broker/agent, third party consultants, or OSHA/DOL Consultation Department.

 


What is a JSA and Why is it Important?

Hawker Posted by Tonya Hawker

Are you struggling with integrating safety into daily work routines?  Are you looking for ways to incorporate safety and health principles into key performance indicators?  If so, or you need a way to improve safety accountability in your work environment, then Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is your answer.  JSAs are a proven process for effectively improving workplace safety and production efficiency.

A Job Safety Analysis, also referred to as Job Hazard Analysis (JHA), is defined by OSHA as a process that examines individual job tasks by breaking the job apart into specific tasks with an eye towards hazards and controls.  The evaluation process observes the connections between the worker, task, tools, and environment.  After identifying the hazards, the user can take the appropriate steps to prevent injuries by controlling those hazards.  The JSA offers an excellent method for clearly outlining safe and efficient work processes while developing effective expectations.

Completing a JSA is simple, but it is important to “know the job.”  The more clearly a worker understands the job, the more useful the JSA will be.  Here are six steps to consider when completing a JSA:

  1. Select the job to be analyzed. It is best to prioritize the jobs based upon operational relevancy and hazard level.
  2. Break down the job into a sequence of steps. Consider recording video or taking pictures of the process.  This can be useful for training.
  3. Document each job task in the process, beginning each step with an action verb.
  4. With each step in the process, ask the 5 Ws: “Who, What, Where, When, Why.”
  5. Discuss all steps with the worker(s) performing the job task. The best way to develop the JSA is by actually observing the worker(s) performing the task as they would ordinarily be instructed.
  6. Collaborate with the worker(s) to review the job steps and confirm if the steps continue to be the safest and most effective methods. Reviewing the JSA with the worker helps to uncover useful details regarding how the task is performed, but also why it is done in a certain manner.  This process also helps to grow employee satisfaction, loyalty, and validation.

JSAs not only help prevent injuries through safe/efficient work practices, they offer many other benefits including:

  1. Better defines job descriptions and identifies physical tasks required.
  2. Improves new hire orientation, job performance and safety training priorities.
  3. Enhances safety performance and employee morale.
  4. Improves OSHA compliance.
  5. May increase productivity and efficiency.

Better processes make a safer workplaces, and that means improved production, better morale, and higher profits.  For more information, MEMIC customers can click here to enroll in our April 27, 2017 webinar entitled, “JSAs: What are they and why are they important?”

 


Are your Employees Adding Value to your Safety Culture?

Campbell Posted by Jennifer Campbell

In the workplace, the word “safety” can evoke two distinct opinions. Some see safety as the most important aspect of their business, a healthy investment which their company strives to promote throughout the workplace.  Others see safety as code for an overburdensome waste of time, money, and effort.  For companies struggling with safety culture improvement, here are some ideas for raising safety awareness. 

Employees may be hesitant to embrace safety if they feel that it does not apply to them.  It is important that employees understand that even if they are not working on machines or climbing to dangerous heights, that they are still at risk of injury.  Include information and statistics on real life safety topics such as distracted drivers, food safety, fire prevention, ergonomic injuries, slips/trips/falls, and workplace violence.  Topics like these will show employees that there are risks involved with every job!  Videos of real workplace safety hazards and community safety programs can help get the point across.  Encourage employees to include their family members in the safety message.  Injuries can affect people at home or at work.

A great way to involve employees in your safety culture is by creating a new safety committee, or inviting them to join your existing safety committee.   Make sure management allows employees to participate during work time.  A safety committee should have representation from all levels of the organization, from management to laborers.  This gives employees the opportunity to express any concerns they may have.  Post any identified safety issues along with efforts to ensure those issues are addressed.  Create a company safety goal for the committee to work toward using a SMART goal format.  Rewarding employees for participating or making safety improvements is another good way to improve culture. 

A fast and simple way to keep safety in the minds of your employees is to include a reminder in their paycheck envelopes, send emails, or broadcast the message over the company PA system.  Providing and sharing safety tips, statistics, and real-life stories about other companies like your own are just a few examples of what can be included.  Ask your employees for suggestions or ideas on what they would like to learn more about.  Provide rewards or make announcements about which employees participate and make suggestions for improvements.

Many companies have taken the step to create a safety incentive program within their company.  Traditional incentive programs based on a lack of injuries are frowned upon by OSHA since they may unintentionally discourage employees from reporting accidents in fear of having the incentives revoked. However, other programs such as a “Find & Fix” or Safety BINGO that focus on hazard identification and correction, may benefit your safety program.  Encourage employees to look for hazards in the workplace and report them to the appropriate personnel to correct the problem!

These methods, along with written programs and proper training, will help to make safety in the workplace a habit instead of a hassle.  Utilizing MEMIC’s online resources is another great way to provide safety awareness information in an effective and productive manner. 


Pour Me Another Cup of Coffee

Jones Posted by Anthony G. Jones, R.N., COHN

Pour Me another Cup of Coffee… for I am a truck driving man” comes from the song “Truck Drivin’ Man” recorded by Buck Owens in 1965. This blast from the past came to mind when thumbing through a recent AAOHN journal. I came across an article referencing a Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) study on caffeine and truck driving.1  The study looked at the relationship between caffeine use, sleep, and “Safety Critical Events” (SCE). An SCE is described as a collision, tire strike, near-collision, unexpected lane deviation, or collision related conflict. 

The VTTI study, conducted over a four-month period, used long and short haul drivers from four companies. The subjects drove instrumented trucks, which included cab mounted video and driver maintained logs recording their sleep patterns and caffeine use.  Any SCE events were evaluated by researchers watching the video feeds in conjunction with the subject’s log books.

The study revealed that caffeine did not interrupt the sleep of drivers who were habitual users of caffeine. Drivers in the study actually slept longer during their “on duty” sleep periods than during their “off duty” sleep periods. This was despite increased caffeine use during “on duty” periods. Although it was noted in the study “participants experienced less sleep than the time historically considered adequate for safe driving performance.”

That was interesting, but what really got my attention was this finding: “Overall, a 6% reduction in the rate of SCE per eight (8) ounces of caffeinated beverage consumed.”

The positive and negative effects of caffeine are well known. It is one of the most used stimulants and commonly found in coffee, tea, energy drinks, and soft drinks.  According to WebMD, caffeine works by stimulating the central nervous system, heart, muscles, and the centers that control blood pressure. Caffeine can raise blood pressure, but it might not have this effect on people that use it all the time.  It can also act as a “water pill”, or a mild diuretic. But again, it may not have this effect on people who use caffeine regularly. Caffeine improves mental alertness and is used in combination with painkillers such as aspirin and Tylenol to treat simple and migraine headaches. 

Up to 400 milligrams (mg) of caffeine a day appears to be safe for most adults, according to the Mayo Clinic.  That’s roughly four cups of brewed coffee, 10 cans of cola, or two “energy shot” drinks.  Heavy use of more than 500 to 600 mg a day may cause such symptoms as insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, irritability, stomach upset, fast heartbeat, and muscle tremors. 

The VTTI study suggests SCE’s may be reduced for those who have the caffeine habit. The VTTI study suggested “caffeine use among habitual users offers some protection against SCE without negative effect on sleep.”  However, two groups did not improve. Drivers aged 30 to 39 had an increase in collisions, and drivers aged 21 to 29 experienced an increase in unexpected lane deviations. The report indicated it wasn’t clear if those age groups were more distracted by secondary activities, or risky behavior such as speeding or tail-gating.

An Australian study also found caffeine use had a positive benefit in SCE reduction. The study used more subjects, a control group, and ran longer than the VTTI study.  “Our findings suggest that the consumption of caffeinated stimulant substances is associated with a significantly reduced risk of involvement in a crash for long distance drivers in Australia,” the study concluded. “The use and influence of caffeinated stimulants should be considered as an effective adjunct strategy to maintain alertness while driving.”

It appears the use of caffeine can have a benefit in reducing overall truck accidents and near miss incidences. That’s the good news. The bad news is truck drivers are not getting adequate sleep.  Significantly, as shown in the Australian study, the SCE benefits only came with high consumption of caffeine. There was no real improvement for those with low or moderate caffeine use.

Significantly, according to Lisa Sharwood, M.S., one of the Australian study authors, “While caffeine may seem effective in enhancing their alertness...it should be considered carefully in the context of a safe and healthy fatigue management strategy… Energy drinks and coffee certainly don't replace the need for sleep.” 

For more information regarding sleep and safe driving, check out the resources available at DrowsyDriving.org., and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute.

 

1 American Association of Occupational Health Nurse Association (AAOHN) “Workplace Health and Safety” August 2015 Vol. 63 #8.  “The Effect of Caffeine Use on Driving Safety Among Truck Drivers Who are Habitual Caffeine Users.” Authored by Karen Heaton PhD, FNP-BC and Russell Griffin PhD.

 

 

 

 


Safety Shoes – Selecting the Right Shoe for Your Workplace

LevesquePosted by Adam Levesque, MBA, CSP

What better day to discuss this topic than “Shoe the World Day?”  There are multiple factors to consider when selecting the most appropriate foot protection.  The goal is to make sure that your feet are comfortable, supported, and protected.  In a recent post, we demonstrated that a pair of safety shoes is an effective piece of personal protective equipment.  However, the hazards are not only falling objects or fork trucks rolling over toes, but discomfort due to improper fit and selection.  Choosing the appropriate safety shoe could prevent foot related problems like bunions, corns, calluses, hammertoes, and even prevent discomfort to the legs, hips, and back. 

Consider these tips when selecting your next pair.

  1. Safety should be the initial consideration when selecting the correct pair of protective footwear. There are many options in the market but you should choose a pair that will protect your feet from the hazards present.  A combination of safety toe caps, metatarsal guards (protection for the top of the foot), steel plate soles (puncture resistant), sole material (slip resistance, electrical insulation, flexibility, and hardness), and overall construction materials used should be considered. 
  1. Fit is very important! Did you know that the human foot actually grows during the day and shrinks while you sleep? While that’s not entirely true, everyone’s feet are slightly larger after a hard day’s work.  This means the end of the day is the best time to try on a new pair of shoes or boots.  Making sure your new shoes fit well is key to preventing future discomfort.  About one-third of adult men are wearing shoes that don’t fit properly, so take the time to ensure you are selecting the proper size.   
  1. Comfort is a must! The majority of quality safety shoes and boots will not stretch or need a break in period.  Make sure that when you’re test driving potential footwear, your feet are immediately comfortable.  Areas of comfort include appropriate space in the toe box, no pinching or cramping at the ball of the foot or toe area, and adequate support in the arch and heel. Make sure the padding and materials used are adequate for your work climate.  Utilizing a shoe with moisture control technology for both warm and cold climates is a great option, but can affect how your shoe fits.  When feet are comfortable, your knees, hips, and lower back are better aligned and supported.

Be aware that no footwear can provide protection against all injuries.  Hazards must be controlled by elimination, engineering controls, and administrative controls primarily.  Relying on PPE alone is not acceptable.  However, by selecting the correct shoe for your work environment and personal needs, you will have the best personal protection for preventing foot related injuries should other controls fail. 

Additional information on safety footwear is available from several online sites including The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society, WorkingPerson.me, National Safety Council,  OSHA, and Grainger.